Social Science

There are actually 5 different types of science. Let’s start with the social sciences. This studies people and focusses on the relationships people can have. You can think of sociology for example, or economics.

Sociology studies society and the relationships people have with their society. It studies many aspects of human social interaction. For example, it can study if people with high paying jobs are happier than people with more common jobs. It could actually be the other way around, high paying jobs are often very stressful and might make people more unhappy 

Moving on to economics, some of you might not know this yet, but this is also a social science, it is also about social interaction between people. The only difference here is that it is about social interaction involving money. It’s not even only about money, it is also about just plain needs and wants. People have certain desires and other people can get it for them, and then they need to talk and make deals. It doesn’t always have to be with money, but it is a standardized way we use to exchange value amongst each other. 

The Humanities (Is It A Science?)

The next one is called the humanities, and is a bit controversial whether or not it should be called a science. Some people think these disciplines are more like an art, or just too creative to be called a science. Whatever your position on this, they are still academic disciplines with you can learn at university, and which have scientific elements nonetheless.

The humanities studies humanity, and what humans do, basically everything that has to do with human nature, like our human societies and culture. Some of the studies in this field are philosophy, history and so on. 

Philosophy studies fundamental questions like, is there a god, what is reality, why do we exist, and so on. Other animals don’t really question their existence. They just exist and live out their lives. But humans somehow are aware of their own existence, and actually start to wonder why. What is my purpose. And then we philosophize about the world, ourselves, the universe, and so on. So, philosophy is something pretty essential of human nature. 

History studies everything that had to do with humanity in the past. Ituse evidence like written records, ecological markers or artifacts to create narratives about what happened in the past.  

Natural Science

The third science is called natural science. This type of science aims to predict, describe and understand natural phenomena. Scientists in this area use empirical evidence from observation and experimentation to discover new knowledge. These are sciences like biology and physics. 

Biology studies life and living organisms. It looks at the physical structure of living beings, but also their cells and molecules, and how the different parts of the body interact. Biology also looks at evolution, how an animal species develops over time. 

Physics is the study of matter, how it moves and behaves through space and time. It also looks at how it relates to energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental sciences, and wants to understand how the universe works in its very core essence. 

Formal Science

The 4th science is called formal sciences. These are things like mathematics and computer science. These sciences do not really look at aspects of the world, but rather formal systems themselves. Such a formal system has particular definitions and rules, and these are then analyzed to find results. Note that mathematics is not a natural science. It doesn’t study nature itself, it just looks at formal systems and creates theories about it, like with triangles and the Pythagorean theorem. But then, we can use these theories in physics to derive results about the actual world, like the distance between earth and the moon. 

Applied Science

The final one is called the applied sciences, and these are things like engineering and medicine, that have immediate practical uses. They all use mathematics and physics and stuff for their own particular goals: to cure someone from a disease or to build a bridge or something.


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